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  • Analysis of Exosomes
  • Fusion Gene
  • Copy Number Variation
  • Microscale Mutation
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Sequencing
  • Analysis of Exosomes

    Exosomes are secreted membrane enclosed vesicles (extracellularvesicles) of 30-120 nm diameter.Exosomes are lipid-bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood.Normal cells and tumor cells secrete exosomes, but different types of cells secrete extracellular secretion of different content, which contains a variety of RNA, cytosolic proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction of proteins, a variety of metabolic enzymes, heat shock proteins and transmembrane proteins. Exosomes are involved in cell-to-cell communication through the fusion of target cells with the target cells.


    Exosomes research significance:


    1.  early pancreatic cancer diagnosis

    Using mass spectrometry analyses,Raghu Kalluri identify a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1),specifically enriched on cancer-cell-derived exosomes. GPC1 crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreatic cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreatic disease from patients with early-and late-stage pancreatic cancer. PDAC patients and PCPL patients with longitudinal blood collections showed a significant decrease in GPC1 crExo levels after surgical resection. GPC1 may be an independent prognostic and predictive marker for disease-specific survival . The relative concentration of crExos was significantly higher in the pancreatic cancer precursor lesions(PCPL>20%)and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC>50%) compared to healthy donors(<10%)and benign pancreatic disease (BPD<10%),GPC1 crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreatic cancer (Melo SA et al., 2015).(Melo SA et al., 2015)。


    2.The use of exosomes for tumor metastasis monitoring

    126-year-ago,Stephen Paget put forward "seed-and-soil" hypothesis, recent studies have shown that exosomes play an indispensable role in the regulation of tumor metastasis and organ metabolism: tumor cells secrete exosomes into body fluids, and exosomes reach the tumor metastasis target tissue with circulation of body fluids, combined with the target tissue of specific cells.The specific microenvironment of target tissue is changed by the action of the contents of exosomes, so that the target tissue microenvironment is suitable for the growth and survival of metastatic tumor cells.


    3. The use of exosomes for tumor therapy

    Trujillo team found that some distance from the cancer cells secrete exosomes can kill cancer cells, without any killing effect and negative effects to normal cells . This natural physiological mechanism could be used to inhibit tumors(Trujillo KA et al., 2011)。


    References:

    1. Melo SA, Luecke LB, Kahlert C, Fernandez AF, Gammon ST, et al. 2015. Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer. Nature 523:177-82.

    2. Yun Zhang and Xiao-Fan Wang 2015. A niche role for cancer exosomes in metastasis. Nature Cell Biology Volume 17.

    3. Ayuko Hoshino, Bruno Costa-Silva, Tang-Long Shen, Goncalo Rodrigues, et al. 2015. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasia. Nature 15756.

    4. Trujilo KA,Heaphy CM, Mai M, Vargas KM, Jones AC, et al.2011.Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors. Int. J. Cancer: 129, 1310-1321.

  • Fusion Gene

    q-q-PCR Detection Dlatform


    一、Technical Principle

    Q-PCR is used to quantitatively or qualitatively detect nucleic acids combining fluorescent labeling and PCR amplification.


    二、Clinic and Research Application

    Gualitatively detect the presence of the target nucleic acid or deletion /duplication in the samples,such as gene polymorphism detection(ARMS) based on SNP genotyping used to guide the efficacy of tumor drugs, blood disease genotyping and virus infection detection, including EGFR gene mutation, RAS gene mutation, the polymorphism of CYP family genes, fusion gene screening in blood disease, hepatitis B virus DNA(HBV), hepatitis C virus RNA(HCV) etc..

    Guantitatively detection of the target nucleic acid content in the sample include absolute quantitation and relative quantitation. Absolute quantitation detect the sample content based on the standard curve obtained from the amplification of standard samples, such as HBV DNA content determination and HCV RNA content determination. Relative quantitation is calculating the relative content of the initial reaction template, such as gene expression analysis, microRNA expression analysis, protein expression, minimal residual of blood disease and prognosis etc..

    三、Technical advantages

      Five-color fluorescence detection has more comprehensive applications, including gene expression analysis, pathogen absolute quantitative analysis, SNP genotype analysis and positive / negative results determination based on positive internal control.

    Advantages:

    1、 Time saving, high sensitivity, good accuracy and wide linear range, detect the content of the mutant genes as low as 0.1-1.0% in the sample;

    2、The length of the target product can be minimized in design,solve the problem that most DNA extracted from the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen fragmented resulting in failing to get accurate test results;

    3、Combine with real-time PCR platform to achieve closing operation in amplification process and operate simply, quantitative results can be obtained after the end of PCR reaction without product post-processing, so that it can avoid product pollution to an extreme.

     

    Second generation Sequencing Detection Platform

    Ion Torrent High Throughput Sequencing Platform


    一、Technical Principle

    The DNA strand was immobilized in the micropores of the microarray. DNA complementary strand was synthesize by DNA polymerase as single stranded DNA template according to the base complementarity principle. When the DNA strand extends a base, it releases a proton, resulting in local pH changes. The surface of the microsphere in each micropore of the Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing chip contains about one million copies of DNA molecules. At the time of sequencing, each nucleotide molecule continuously flows through the micropores of the chip. If the nucleotide is complementary to the DNA molecule in the particular micropore, the nucleotide will be synthesized into the DNA molecule. The hydrogen ions are released, and the pH of the solution in the micropore changes. When the ion sensor detects the PH changing, it changes from chemical information to digital electronic information instantly. If the DNA strand contains two identical bases, the recording voltage signal is double. If the bases don’t match, hydrogen ions don’t be released, and no voltage signal changes. This is a direct detection method of DNA synthesis. Due to less CCD scanning, fluorescence excitation and other links, a few seconds are taken to detect the inserted synthesis bases, greatly reducing the running time.

    1460026127102609blob.png


    二、Clinical and Research Application Directions

    Clinical Applications:

    Guidance on disease medication

    Disease genetic screening

    Research Applications:

    Genetic susceptibility gene Research of diseases Research

    Disease pathogenesis study

    Drug sensitivity / drug resistance / side effects Research

    Real-time monitoring and prognosis of tumors Research


    三、Technical Advantages

           fast speed Sequencing,  Flexible operation

    Illumina  high throughput sequencing platform


    一、Technical Principle

    IlluminaHiseq sequencing is sequencing technique with synthesis based on single monomolecular cluster, which enables a large number of genomes to be sequenced in a single run, allowing large studies to be completed in minimal operations .At the time of sequencing, random fragments of genomic DNA were attached to optically transparent glass surfaces (Flowcell), which were extended and bridge type amplified to form hundreds of millions clusters on Flowcell, each Cluster is a single molecule cluster with thousands of identical templates.The template DNA was sequenced by reversible SBS technique using four specific deoxyribonucleic acids with fluorescent groups.

    1460026142139552blob.png


    二、Clinical and Research Applications

    Clinical Applications::

    Guidance on disease medication

    Disease genetic screening

    advanced Health management

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT)

    Assisted reproduction

    Research Applications:

    Genetic susceptibility gene Research of diseases Research

    Disease pathogenesis study

    Drug sensitivity / drug resistance / side effects Research

    Real-time monitoring and prognosis of tumors Research

    Recurrence and metastasis of tumor Research

    Rumor heterogeneity Research

    Molecular typing of disease Research

    Evolutionary Evolution of Tumor Research

    Evolutionary Evolution of Tumor Research


    三、Technical Advantages

    High accuracy, low unit cost, high sequencing throughput

     

  • Copy Number Variation

    q-q-PCR Detection Dlatform


    一、Clinical and scientific applications

    Genetic disease aided diagnosis: SNP-Array technology can achieve the whole genome scan in a single experiment, detect the imbalance change of all chromosomes with a higher resolution. The SNP-Array chip can be used to study the genetic changes associated with tumorigenesis and chromosome aberration in the process, and is able to detect the copy number variation (CNV) of genetic disease related (genes including ) to common or rare genome on a genome-wide scale (CNV), such as auxiliary diagnosis of recurrent abortion, individual growth retardation and malformations, mental retardation, autism and other genetic diseases.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: for pregnant women who had unexplained spontaneous abortion, fetal malformation, stop, stillbirth or neonatal death and aged pregnant women, assisted reproductive methods can be chosen to improve the clinical pregnancy rate, reduce abortion rate and the risk of birth defects.


    二、Technical advantage

    The SNP-Array probe covers the whole genome the distribution of gene (introns, exons), intergenic and subtelomeric regions important for disease study (repeat sequences excluded are roughly same. It has higher sensitivity, precision and resolution. Compared with other technologies, Affymetrix provides the higher sensitivity and specificity, which can detect the deletion or amplification of single copy, is a powerful tool for CNV related researches and tests.


    ddPCR detection platform


    一、Technical principle 

    By diluting the sample into many parts, and then counting it when the reaction occurs, the sensitivity is as high as 0.001%, which is significantly higher than that of the amplification block mutation system (0.1%) and Sanger sequencing (10%). At the same time, it can overcome the adverse effects of nucleic acid degradation, and is very suitable for the accurate detection of nucleic acid or nucleic acid degradation in some rare samples. The detection of target sequence can be achieved in the samples of puncture, pleural effusion and peripheral blood.


    、Clinical and scientific applications

    1、Tumor micro mutation:

    a. Tumor chemosensitivity assay SNP

    b. Early screening of tumor

    c. Real time monitoring of tumor load

    d. secondary resistance

    2、CNV detection of tumor drug sensitivity: HER2、ALK、ABL1、DPYD etc.

    3、Quantitative source of infection


    三、Technical advantage

    ddPCR is absolute quantification in the true sense, it can collect mutation rates with no standard curve. The limit of detection can be as low as single copy. The effect of PCR inhibitor could not be overcame by the independent of Ct value and amplification efficiency.

     

    The Next generation sequencing platform


    Ion Torrent High throughput sequencing platform


    一、Technical principle

    The DNA chain is fixed in the micropore of the semiconductor chip, and the complementary DNA strand is synthesized according to the principle of complementary bases. When a DNA chain extends a base, a proton is released, resulting in a change in local pH. The surface of the microspheres in the Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing chip contains about 1 million copies of the DNA molecule. Nucleotide molecules continuously flow through the micropore. If the nucleotide is complementary to a specific DNA molecule in the micropores, the nucleotide is synthesized into the DNA molecule and the hydrogen ion is released, and the PH of the pore solution changes. When the ion sensor detects the change of PH, it changes from chemical information into digital electronic information immediately. If the DNA chain contains two identical bases, the recorded voltage signal is double. If the base does not match, there is no hydrogen ion release, there is no change in the voltage signal. This method is a direct detection of DNA synthesis, due to the lack of CCD scanning, fluorescence excitation and other links, inserted base can be detected in a few seconds,which greatly reduce the running time.

    1460026127102609blob.png

     

    二、Clinical and scientific applications

    clinical application::

            Medication guide

           Genetic screening

    Research application:

           Genetic predisposition to disease

           Study on pathogenic mechanism of tumor

           Drug sensitivity / resistance / adverse effects

           Real time monitoring and prognosis of tumor


    三、Technical advantage

            Sequencing speed, flexible machine

     

    Illumina High throughput sequencing platform


    一、Technical principle

    Illumina Hiseq sequencing is sequencing by synthesis technology based on single molecule cluster, sequencing of a large number of genome and exome can be achieved in a single run, so large studies can be done in the least operation. genomic DNA fragments were attached to the optical transparent glass surface (Flowcell), the DNA fragments are amplified and extended through the bridge,hundreds of millions of clusters are formed on the Flowcell, and each cluster has thousands of copies of the same template molecule cluster. Then, using the four kinds of special deoxyribonucleic acid (SBS) with fluorescent groups, the DNA was tested by reversible termination (synthesis by sequencing).

    1460026142139552blob.png


    二、Clinical and scientific applications

    clinical application:

    Medication guide

    Genetic screening

    Advanced health management

    Non-invasive prenatal gene detection NIPT

    Assisted reproduction

    Research application:

    Genetic susceptibility genes of disease

    Disease pathogenesis study

    Drug sensitivity / drug resistance / side effects

    Real - time monitoring and prognosis of tumors

    Study on recurrence and metastasis of tumor

    Study on tumor heterogeneity

    Molecular typing of disease

    Evolutionary Evolution of Tumor

    Research on Virus Integration Mechanism


    三、Technical advantage

           High accuracy, low unit cost, high sequencing flux


  • Microscale Mutation

    q-PCR-ARMS Detection Platform


    一、Technical Principle

    q-PCRis used to quantitatively or qualitatively detect nucleic acids combining fluorescent labeling and PCR amplification.


    二、Clinic and Research Application

    Gualitatively detect the presence of the target nucleic acid or deletion /duplication in the samples,such as gene polymorphism detection(ARMS) based on SNP genotyping used to guide the efficacy of tumor drugs, blood disease genotyping and virus infection detection, including EGFR gene mutation, RAS gene mutation, the polymorphism of CYP family genes, fusion gene screening in blood disease, hepatitis B virus DNA(HBV), hepatitis C virus RNA(HCV) etc..

    Guantitatively detection of the target nucleic acid content in the sample include absolute quantitation and relative quantitation. Absolute quantitation detect the sample content based on the standard curve obtained from the amplification of standard samples, such as HBV DNA content determination and HCV RNA content determination. Relative quantitation is calculating the relative content of the initial reaction template, such as gene expression analysis, microRNA expression analysis, protein expression, minimal residual of blood disease and prognosis etc..


    三、Technical advantages

    Five-color fluorescence detection has more comprehensive applications, including gene expression analysis, pathogen absolute quantitative analysis, SNP genotype analysis and positive / negative results determination based on positive internal control.

    Advantages:

    1、Time saving, high sensitivity, good accuracy and wide linear range, detect the content of the mutant genes as low as 0.1-1.0% in the sample;

    2、The length of the target product can be minimized in design,solve the problem that most DNA extracted from the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen fragmented resulting in failing to get accurate test results;

    3、Combine with real-time PCR platform to achieve closing operation in amplification process and operate simply, quantitative results can be obtained after the end of PCR reaction without product post-processing, so that it can avoid product pollution to an extreme.


    ddPCR Detection Platform


    一、Technical Principle

    Dilute the sample into many parts and then count it when a reaction occurs, the sensitivity was as high as 0.001%, significantly higher than that of the amplified block mutant system (0.1%) and the Sanger method (10%). Also overcome the adverse effects of nucleic acid degradation, it is very suitable for nucleic acid accurate detection of some rare samples. The sensitivity of the target sequence can reach 0.001%, which is the best choice when the sample is precious or the nucleic acid is degraded by high sensitivity and high specificity detection of target sequence. In the puncture samples, pleural effusion, peripheral blood , it can complete the target sequence detection.


    二、Clinical and Scientific Research Applications

    1、Tumor micro mutations:

    a.Cancer susceptibility testing (SNP)

    b.Tumor super-early screening

    c.Tumor load monitoring in real time

    d.Secondary resistance

    2、tumor drug-sensitive CNV detection: HER2, ALK, ABL1, DPYD, etc.

    3、 infection source quantity


    三、Technical Parameters

    True significance absolute quantitation, can count the mutation rate without the standard curve and detection limit can be as low as a single copy. It does not depend on the Ct value and the amplification efficiency, can overcome the effects of PCR inhibitors.


    Second generation Sequencing Detection Platform


    Ion TorrentHigh Throughput Sequencing Platform

     

    一、Technical Principle

    The DNA strand was immobilized in the micropores of the microarray. DNA complementary strand was synthesize by DNA polymerase as single stranded DNA template according to the base complementarity principle. When the DNA strand extends a base, it releases a proton, resulting in local pH changes. The surface of the microsphere in each micropore of the Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing chip contains about one million copies of DNA molecules. At the time of sequencing, each nucleotide molecule continuously flows through the micropores of the chip. If the nucleotide is complementary to the DNA molecule in the particular micropore, the nucleotide will be synthesized into the DNA molecule. The hydrogen ions are released, and the pH of the solution in the micropore changes. When the ion sensor detects the PH changing, it changes from chemical information to digital electronic information instantly. If the DNA strand contains two identical bases, the recording voltage signal is double. If the bases don’t match, hydrogen ions don’t be released, and no voltage signal changes. This is a direct detection method of DNA synthesis. Due to less CCD scanning, fluorescence excitation and other links, a few seconds are taken to detect the inserted synthesis bases, greatly reducing the running time.

    1460026127102609blob.png

     

    二、临床和科研应用

    Clinical and Research Application Directions:

           Guidance on disease medication

           Disease genetic screening

    Research Applications:

           Genetic susceptibility gene Research of diseases Research

           Disease pathogenesis study

           Drug sensitivity / drug resistance / side effects Research

           Real-time monitoring and prognosis of tumors Research

     

    三、Technical Advantages

           fast speed Sequencing,  Flexible operation

     

    Illumina high throughput sequencing platform

     

    一、Technical Principle

    IlluminaHiseq sequencing is sequencing technique with synthesis based on single monomolecular cluster, which enables a large number of genomes to be sequenced in a single run, allowing large studies to be completed in minimal operations .At the time of sequencing, random fragments of genomic DNA were attached to optically transparent glass surfaces (Flowcell), which were extended and bridge type amplified to form hundreds of millions clusters on Flowcell, each Cluster is a single molecule cluster with thousands of identical templates.The template DNA was sequenced by reversible SBS technique using four specific deoxyribonucleic acids with fluorescent groups.

    1460026142139552blob.png

     

    二、Clinical and Research Applications

    Clinical Applications:

    Guidance on disease medication

    Disease genetic screening

    advanced Health management

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT)

    Assisted reproduction

    Research Applications:

    Genetic susceptibility gene Research of diseases Research

    Disease pathogenesis study

    Drug sensitivity / drug resistance / side effects Research

    Real-time monitoring and prognosis of tumors Research

    Recurrence and metastasis of tumor Research

    Rumor heterogeneity Research

    Molecular typing of disease Research

    Evolutionary Evolution of Tumor Research

    Virus Integration Mechanism Research

     

    三、Technical Advantages

           High accuracy, low unit cost, high sequencing throughput


  • Gene Expression

    Chip Detection Platform


    一、Clinical and Scientific Research Applications

    Clinical Applications:

    Auxiliary diagnosis of hereditary diseases: CNV detection, CytoScan chip provides the ability to detect known and new chromosomal aberrations throughout the human genome, it can detect syndromes caused by chromosomal aneuploidy, syndromes associated with chromosome microdeletion or microinjection, and diseases related about lack of heterozygosity (LOH) and single parental diploid (UPD), such as recurrent miscarriage, individual dyskinesia and malformations, mental retardation and malformations, autism, myelodysplastic syndromes, multiple myeloma and other genetic diseases of the auxiliary diagnosis.

    Scientific Research Applications::

    Detection of gene expression levels: in the expression profile, Affymetrix designed multi-probes to detect transcription levels for 3'IVT (U133 Plus 2.0, Primeview, etc.) and the full transcript expression profile chip (HTA 2.0) for the 3 'end sequence and the full transcriptome expression profile chip which overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional 3'IVT chip for detecting only the 3 'end. For RNA-Seq, the whole genome-wide coverage of the expression chip can be analyzed in all aspects, including variable shear. The research direction includes: Screening of Tumor and Disease Biomarker Genes; Screening of Differentially Expressed Genes in Stem Cell Development(Signal transduction, regulation mechanism, molecular mechanism); in drug development process, the expression chip is analyzed at the transcriptional level on the drug-induced pharmacology, the use of the gene, Toxicological, pharmacokinetic mechanisms.


    二、Technical Advantages

         Genome-wide coverage, focusing on cytogenetic-related areas: containing more than 750,000 probes, including 200,000 SNP genotyping probes, accuracy > 99% and 550,000 copies (CNV).

    • Gene-centered chip design; Genome skeleton design

    • coverage >15,400 RefSeq genes;Increasing probe coverage for genetic disease-related genes and cancer-related genes

    • 100%coverage of genes recognized by the International Society for Cytogenetics(1 marker/ 1 kb;100%covering cancer-related genes(1 marker/ 1 kb)

    • 93%covering X chromosome genes; 83% covering OMIM disease-related genes; 80% covering RefSeq genes(1 marker/ 2 kb) 


    q-PCR Detection Dlatform


    一、Technical Principle

    q-PCRis used to quantitatively or qualitatively detect nucleic acids combining fluorescent labeling and PCR amplification.


    二、Clinic and Research Application

    Gualitatively detect the presence of the target nucleic acid or deletion /duplication in the samples,such as gene polymorphism detection(ARMS) based on SNP genotyping used to guide the efficacy of tumor drugs, blood disease genotyping and virus infection detection, including EGFR gene mutation, RAS gene mutation, the polymorphism of CYP family genes, fusion gene screening in blood disease, hepatitis B virus DNA(HBV), hepatitis C virus RNA(HCV) etc..

    Guantitatively detection of the target nucleic acid content in the sample include absolute quantitation and relative quantitation. Absolute quantitation detect the sample content based on the standard curve obtained from the amplification of standard samples, such as HBV DNA content determination and HCV RNA content determination. Relative quantitation is calculating the relative content of the initial reaction template, such as gene expression analysis, microRNA expression analysis, protein expression, minimal residual of blood disease and prognosis etc..


    三、Technical advantages

      Five-color fluorescence detection has more comprehensive applications, including gene expression analysis, pathogen absolute quantitative analysis, SNP genotype analysis and positive / negative results determination based on positive internal control.

    Advantages:

    1、Time saving, high sensitivity, good accuracy and wide linear range, detect the content of the mutant genes as low as 0.1-1.0% in the sample;

    2、The length of the target product can be minimized in design,solve the problem that most DNA extracted from the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen fragmented resulting in failing to get accurate test results;

    3、Combine with real-time PCR platform to achieve closing operation in amplification process and operate simply, quantitative results can be obtained after the end of PCR reaction without product post-processing, so that it can avoid product pollution to an extreme.


    Second generation Sequencing Detection Platform


    Ion Torrent High Throughput Sequencing Platform


    一、Technical Principle

    The DNA strand was immobilized in the micropores of the microarray. DNA complementary strand was synthesize by DNA polymerase as single stranded DNA template according to the base complementarity principle. When the DNA strand extends a base, it releases a proton, resulting in local pH changes. The surface of the microsphere in each micropore of the Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing chip contains about one million copies of DNA molecules. At the time of sequencing, each nucleotide molecule continuously flows through the micropores of the chip. If the nucleotide is complementary to the DNA molecule in the particular micropore, the nucleotide will be synthesized into the DNA molecule. The hydrogen ions are released, and the pH of the solution in the micropore changes. When the ion sensor detects the PH changing, it changes from chemical information to digital electronic information instantly. If the DNA strand contains two identical bases, the recording voltage signal is double. If the bases don’t match, hydrogen ions don’t be released, and no voltage signal changes. This is a direct detection method of DNA synthesis. Due to less CCD scanning, fluorescence excitation and other links, a few seconds are taken to detect the inserted synthesis bases, greatly reducing the running time.

    14618250324665931460026127102609blob.png


    二、Clinical and Research Application Directions

    Clinical Applications:

    Guidance on disease medication

    Disease genetic screening

    Research Applications:

    Genetic susceptibility gene Research of

    diseases Research

    Drug sensitivity / drug resistance / side effects Research

    Real-time monitoring and prognosis of tumors Research


    三、Technical Advantages

    fast speed Sequencing,  Flexible operation

     

    Illunima high throughput sequencing platform


    一、Technical Principle

    IlluminaHiseqsequencing is sequencing technique with synthesis based on single monomolecular cluster, which enables a large number of genomes to be sequenced in a single run, allowing large studies to be completed in minimal operations .At the time of sequencing, random fragments of genomic DNA were attached to optically transparent glass surfaces (Flowcell), which were extended and bridge type amplified to form hundreds of millions clusters on Flowcell, each Cluster is a single molecule cluster with thousands of identical templates.The template DNA was sequenced by reversible SBS technique using four specific deoxyribonucleic acids with fluorescent groups.

    14618250545957311460026142139552blob.png 


    二、Clinical and Research Applications

    Clinical Applications:

    Guidance on disease medication

    Disease genetic screening

    advanced Health management

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT)

    Assisted reproduction

    Research Applications:

    Genetic susceptibility gene Research of diseases Research

    Disease pathogenesis study

    Drug sensitivity / drug resistance / side effects

    Real-time monitoring and prognosis of tumors Research

    Real-time monitoring and prognosis of tumors Research

    Rumor heterogeneity Research

    Molecular typing of disease Research

    Evolutionary Evolution of Tumor Research

    Virus Integration Mechanism Research


    三、Technical Advantages

    High accuracy, low unit cost, high sequencing throughput


  • Gene Sequencing

    Generation sequencing detection platform


    Sequencing technology can detect missense mutation, nonsense mutations, synonymous mutations, shear mutation, small loss /repeat of genes.


    一、Clinical and research applications

    The tumor individualized medication,Such as gene detection of platinum、 taxol drug susceptibility, etc.

    Tumor prognosis assessment, Such as gene detection of Colorectal cancer, breast cancer prognosis,etc.

    Radiation sensitive and toxic side effects, such as gene detection of head and neck cancer radiotherapy sensitive and toxic side effects, etc.

    Detection of disease susceptibility, such as gene detection of lung cancer susceptibility, liver cancer susceptibility, etc.

    Gene detection of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, such as gene detection of hua Falin, clopidogrel and nitroglycerin curative effect, etc.

    Diagnosis and screening of maternal and child diseases, such as folic acid metabolism ability detection, etc.

    Single gene genetic disease detection, such as phenylketonuria, nonsyndromic deafness, hemophilia, etc.

    Genotyping of infectious diseases, such as HBV drug resistance typing, HCV drug resistance typing, etc.


    二、Technical advantage

    High accuracy: 99%

     Good repeatability: 100%Repeatable

    Detection length up to 1000bp, Accurate length measurement 600bp

    Detection of existing SNP typing, STR typing, CNV genetic markers, etc.



    Next generation sequencing platform


     Ion Torrent high throughput sequencing platform


    一、Technical principle

    The DNA chain is fixed in the micropore of the semiconductor chip, and the DNA polymerase uses a single strand DNA as template, and the complementary DNA strand is synthesized according to the principle of complementary bases. When a DNA chain extends a base, a proton is released, resulting in a change in local pH. The surface of the microspheres in the Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing chip contains about 1 million copies of the DNA molecule. Nucleotide molecules continuously flow through the chip. If the nucleotide is complementary to a DNA molecule in the specific micropores, the nucleotide is synthesized into the DNA molecule and the hydrogen ion is released, and the PH of the pore solution changes. When the ion sensor detects the change of PH, it changes from chemical information into digital electronic information immediately. If the DNA chain contains two identical bases, the recorded voltage signal is double. If the base does not match, there is no hydrogen ion release, there is no change in the voltage signal. This method is a direct detection of DNA synthesis, due to the lack of CCD scanning, fluorescence excitation and other links, a few seconds can be detected in the synthesis of inserted base, greatly reducing the running time.


    二、Clinical and scientific applications

    clinical application:

    Disease medication guide

    Disease genetic screening

    Scientific applications::

    Study on disease genetic susceptibility genes

    Study on pathogenic mechanism of tumor

    Study on drug sensitivity / drug resistance / toxic side effects

    Real time monitoring and prognosis of tumor


    三. Technical advantage

    Sequencing speed is fast, operate flexibly


    Illumina High throughput sequencing platform


    一、Technical principle

    IlluminaHiseq Sequencing is a kind of sequencing by synthesis technology based on single molecule cluster, which can realize the sequencing of a large number of genomes and exons in a single run,allowing large research to be done in the least run.Attach genomic DNA fragments to the glass surface of optical transparent (Flowcell) when sequencing, the DNA fragments form hundreds of millions of Cluster on Flowcell through extending and bridge amplification, each Cluster is single molecule cluster having thousands of copies of the same template. Then, using the four kinds of special deoxyribonucleic acid with fluorescent groups, the template DNA was sequenced by reversible termination SB


    二、Clinical and scientific applications

    clinical application:

    disease medication guide

    disease genetic screening

    Advanced health management

    Non-invasive prenatal gene detectionNIPT

    Assisted reproduction

    Scientific application:

    Study on disease genetic susceptibility genes

    Study on disease pathogenic mechanism

    Study on drug sensitivity / drug resistance / toxic side effects

    Study on real time monitoring and prognosis of tumor

    Study on tumor recurrence and metastasis

    Study on tumor heterogeneity

    Study on molecular classification of diseases

    Study on the evolution of tumor

    Study on Mechanism of virus integration


    三、Technical advantage

    High accuracy, low unit cost, high sequencing flux


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  • Shanghai Biotecan Pharmaceuticals Co. , Ltd.
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  • Address

    First Shanghai Centre, 180 Zhangheng Rd., Pudong New District, Shanghai, China

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